The first packages used the natural materials available at the time: baskets of reeds, wineskins (bota bags), wooden boxes, pottery vases, ceramic amphorae, wooden barrels, woven bags, etc. Processed materials were used to form packages as they were developed: for example, early glass and bronze vessels. The study of old packages is an important aspect of archaeology.
The earliest recorded use of paper for packaging dates back to 1035, when a Persian traveler visiting markets in Cairo noted that vegetables, spices and hardware were wrapped in paper for the customers after they were sold.
The use of tinplate for packaging dates back to the 18th century. The manufacture of tinplate was long a monopoly of Bohemia; in 1667 Andrew Yarranton, an English engineer, and Ambrose Crowley brought the method to England where it was improved by ironmasters including Philip Foley. By 1697, John Hanbury had a rolling mill at Pontypool for making "Pontypoole Plates".The method pioneered there of rolling iron plates by means of cylinders enabled more uniform black plates to be produced than was possible with the former practice of hammering.
Tinplate boxes first began to be sold from ports in the Bristol Channel in 1725. The tinplate was shipped from Newport, Monmouthshire.By 1805, 80,000 boxes were made and 50,000 exported. Tobacconists in London began packaging snuff in metal-plated canisters from the 1760s onwards.
1914 magazine advertisement for cookware with instructions for home canning.
With the discovery of the importance of airtight containers for food preservation by French inventor Nicholas Appert, the tin canning process was patented by British merchant Peter Durand in 1810.After receiving the patent, Durand did not himself follow up with canning food. He sold his patent in 1812 to two other Englishmen, Bryan Donkin and John Hall, who refined the process and product and set up the world's first commercial canning factory on Southwark Park Road, London. By 1813, they were producing the first canned goods for the Royal Navy.
The progressive improvement in canning stimulated the 1855 invention of the can opener. Robert Yeates, a cutlery and surgical instrument maker of Trafalgar Place West, Hackney Road, Middlesex, UK, devised a claw-ended can opener with a hand-operated tool that haggled its way around the top of metal cans. In 1858, another lever-type opener of a more complex shape was patented in the United States by Ezra Warner of Waterbury, Connecticut.
Packing folding cartons of salt.
Set-up boxes were first used in the 16th century and modern folding cartons date back to 1839. The first corrugated box was produced commercially in 1817 in England. Corrugated (also called pleated) paper received a British patent in 1856 and was used as a liner for tall hats. Scottish-born Robert Gair invented the pre-cut paperboard box in 1890¡ªflat pieces manufactured in bulk that folded into boxes. Gair's invention came about as a result of an accident: as a Brooklyn printer and paper-bag maker during the 1870s, he was once printing an order of seed bags, and the metal ruler, normally used to crease bags, shifted in position and cut them. Gair discovered that by cutting and creasing in one operation he could make prefabricated paperboard boxes.
Commercial paper bags were first manufactured in Bristol, England, in 1844, and the American Francis Wolle patented a machine for automated bag-making in 1852.
Packaging advancements in the early 20th century included Bakelite closures on bottles, transparent cellophane overwraps and panels on cartons. These innovations increased processing efficiency and improved food safety. As additional materials such as aluminum and several types of plastic were developed, they were incorporated into packages to improve performance and functionality.
Heroin bottle and carton, early 20th century.
In 1952, Michigan State University became the first university in the world to offer a degree in Packaging Engineering.
In-plant recycling has long been common for producing packaging materials. Post-consumer recycling of aluminum and paper-based products has been economical for many years: since the 1980s, post-consumer recycling has increased due to curbside recycling, consumer awareness, and regulatory pressure.
A pill box made from Polyethylene in 1936.
Many prominent innovations in the packaging industry were developed first for military use. Some military supplies are packaged in the same commercial packaging used for general industry. Other military packaging must transport materiel, supplies, foods, etc. under severe distribution and storage conditions. Packaging problems encountered in World War II led to Military Standard or "mil spec" regulations being applied to packaging, which was then designated "military specification packaging". As a prominent concept in the military, mil spec packaging officially came into being around 1941, due to operations in Iceland experiencing critical losses, ultimately attributed to bad packaging. In most cases, mil spec packaging solutions (such as barrier materials, field rations, antistatic bags, and various shipping crates) are similar to commercial grade packaging materials, but subject to more stringent performance and quality requirements.
As of 2003, the packaging sector accounted for about two percent of the gross national product in developed countries. About half of this market was related to food packaging.
A plastic bottle is a bottle constructed from plastic. Plastic bottles are typically used to store liquids such as water, soft drinks, motor oil, cooking oil, medicine, shampoo, milk, and ink. The size ranges from very small sample bottles to large carboys.
Plastic bottles are formed using a variety of techniques. The choice of material varies. depending upon application.
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is the most widely used resin for plastic bottles. This material is economical, impact resistant, and provides a good moisture barrier. HDPE is compatible with a wide range of products including acids and caustics but is not compatible with solvents. It is supplied in FDA-approved food grade. HDPE is naturally translucent and flexible. The addition of color will make HDPE opaque, but not glossy. HDPE lends itself to silk screen decoration. While HDPE provides good protection at below freezing temperatures, it cannot be used with products filled above 160 ¡ãF (71 ¡ãC) or products requiring a hermetic (vacuum) seal.
Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) is similar to HDPE in composition. It is less rigid and generally less chemically resistant than HDPE, but is more translucent. LDPE is used primarily for squeeze applications. LDPE is significantly more expensive than HDPE.
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET, PETE or polyester) is commonly used for carbonated beverage, water bottles and many food products. PET provides very good alcohol and essential oil barrier properties, generally good chemical resistance (although acetones and ketones will attack PET) and a high degree of impact resistance and tensile strength. The orienting process serves to improve gas and moisture barrier properties and impact strength. This material does not provide resistance to very high temperature applications¡ªmax. temp. 200 ¡ãF (93 ¡ãC).
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is naturally clear, has extremely good resistance to oils, and has very low oxygen transmission. It provides an excellent barrier to most gases and its drop impact resistance is also very good. This material is chemically resistant, but it is vulnerable to some solvents. PVC has poor resistance to high temperatures and will distort at 160 ¡ãF (71 ¡ãC), making it incompatible with hot-filled products. It has attained notoriety in recent years due to potential health risks.
Polycarbonate (PC) is a clear plastic used to make water and milk bottles. 5 gallon water bottles are the most common examples of PC bottles.
Polypropylene (PP) is used primarily for jars and closures and provides a rigid package with excellent moisture barrier. One major advantage of polypropylene is its stability at high temperatures, up to 220 ¡ãF (104 ¡ãC). Polypropylene is autoclavable and offers the potential for steam sterilization. The compatibility of PP with high filling temperatures is responsible for its use with hot fill products. PP has excellent chemical resistance, but provides poor impact resistance in cold temperatures.
Polystyrene (PS) offers excellent clarity and stiffness at an economical cost. It is commonly used with dry products including vitamins, petroleum jellies, and spices. Styrene does not provide good barrier properties, and exhibits poor impact resistance.
Fluorine Treated (HDPE) bottles are exposed to fluorine gas in a secondary operation, are similar in appearance to HDPE and have exceptional barrier properties to hydrocarbons and aromatic solvents. Fluorine treated bottles are excellent for use with insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, photographic chemicals, agricultural chemicals, household and industrial cleaners, electronic chemicals, medical cleaners and solvents, citrus products, d-limonene, flavors, fragrances, essential oils, surfactants, polishes, additives, graffiti cleaning products, pre-emergents, stone and tile care products, waxes, paint thinner, gasoline, biodiesel, xylene, acetone, kerosene and more.
For non-bottle applications, fluorination of plastic can provide compliance with state and federal regulations. An example would be fluorination plastic fuel tanks used for lawn and garden equipment, automobiles, etc.
Post Consumer Resin (PCR) is a blend of reclaimed natural HDPE (primarily from milk and water containers) and virgin resin. The recycled material is cleaned, ground and recompounded into uniform pellets along with prime virgin material especially designed to build up environmental stress crack resistance. PCR has no odor but exhibits a slight yellow tint in its natural state. This tint can be hidden by the addition of color. PCR is easily processed and inexpensive. However, it cannot come into direct contact with food or pharmaceutical products. PCR can be produced in a variety of recycled content percentages up to 100%.
K-Resin (SBC) is ideally suited to a wide variety of packaging applications by virtue of its sparkling clarity, high gloss, and impact resistance. K-Resin, a styrene derivative, is easily processed on polyethylene equipment. It is suitable for packaging many products but is specifically incompatible with fats and unsaturated oils or solvents. This material is frequently used for display and point-of-purchase packaging.
Bioplastic - polymer structures based on processed biological materials rather than petrochemicals. Bioplastics are commonly made from renewable sources like starch, vegetable oil, and less commonly, chicken feathers. The idea behind bioplastic is to create a plastic that has the ability to biodegrade.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications including packaging and labeling, textiles (e.g., ropes, thermal underwear and carpets), stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various types, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes. An addition polymer made from the monomer propylene, it is rugged and unusually resistant to many chemical solvents, bases and acids.
Polypropylene has a relatively slippery "low energy surface" that means that many common glues will not form adequate joints. Joining of polypropylene is often done using welding processes.
The melting point of polypropylene occurs at a range, so a melting point is determined by finding the highest temperature of a differential scanning calorimetry chart. Perfectly isotactic PP has a melting point of 171 ¡ãC (340 ¡ãF). Commercial isotactic PP has a melting point that ranges from 160 to 166 ¡ãC (320 to 331 ¡ãF), depending on atactic material and crystallinity. Syndiotactic PP with a crystallinity of 30% has a melting point of 130 ¡ãC (266 ¡ãF). Below 0 ¡ãC, PP becomes brittle.
The thermal expansion of polypropylene is very large, but somewhat less than that of polyethylene.
Polypropylene is recyclable and has the number "5" as its resin identification code.
The foam pump is widely used in case of cosmetic products and household chemicals, such as mousse foam cleansing, hand washing liquid, hand sanitizer, facial cleanser, shaving cream, hair conditioning mousse, sun protection foam, spot removers and baby products etc. In the field of food & beverages, molecular gastronomy style foam is usually created using various techniques and stabilizers such as lecithin but there is at least one ready to use liqueur that has been developed with the foaming apparatus top which produces an alcoholic foam topping for drinks.
A foam pump emits doses of the liquid contained in the bottle in the form of foam. Foam is created in the foamer chamber. The liquid constituents are mixed in the foaming chamber and this is discharged through a nylon mesh. The neck finish size of a foam pump is bigger than the neck finish size of other types of pumps, to accommodate the foamer chamber. The usual neck size of a foam pump is 40 or 43mm.
Where hair-coloring products previously contained instructions to vigorously shake the product, squeeze the bottle, and turn upside-down to disperse the product, foamers do not require any such actions. Some foaming dispensers include suction on the bottom to allow the container to remain upright.
A foam pump, or squeeze foamer and dispensing device is a non-aerosol way of dispensing liquid materials. The foam pump outputs the liquid in the form of foam and it is operated by squeezing. The parts of the foam pump are similar to those of the other pump devices. Many times the foaming pump comes with a protective cap. Most of the components are made from polypropylene (PP).
Foamers can be purchased alone, or filled with a liquid product like soap. When the liquid is mixed with air, the liquid product can be dispersed through the pump-top as a foam. Foamers can also be re-used with different liquid products to extend the mass of the liquid by creating a foam-version.
A jug is a type of container commonly used to hold liquid. It has an opening, often narrow, from which to pour or drink, and often has a handle. Most jugs throughout history have been made of ceramic, glass or plastic. Some Native American and other tribes created liquid holding vessels by making woven baskets lined with an asphaltum sealer
In American English usage, a jug is a large container with a narrow mouth and handle for liquids, and may be used to describe thin plastic sealed shop packaging for milk and other liquids. In all other English speaking countries a jug is any container with a handle and a mouth and spout for liquid, and not used for retail packaging. In American English "pitcher" is the usual word for wide-mouthed vessels, but all other English speaking countries these are called "jugs".
Plastic Jug is a large, deep Plastic container with a narrow opening and a handle which is used for liquid laundry detergent , cleanser or Sauces, Milk packaging.
Plastic jars made from styrene offer excellent clarity and stiffness at an economical cost. These jars are commonly used with dry products including vitamins, petroleum jellies, and Nut fruits. Styrene does not provide good barrier properties, and exhibits poor impact resistance.
Plastic jars made from polypropylene provide a rigid package with an excellent moisture barrier.
One major advantage of polypropylene is its stability at high temperatures, up to 200¡ã F. Polypropylene bottles and jars are autoclavable and offer the potential for steam sterilization. The compatibility of PP with high filling temperatures is responsible for its use with hot fill products such as pancake syrup.
PP bottles have excellent chemical resistance, but provide poor impact resistance in cold temperatures
Plastic Bottles made PVC are naturally clear, have extremely good resistance to oils, and have very low oxygen transmission. PVC bottles provide an excellent barrier to most gases and drop impact resistance is also very good. This material is chemically resistant, but it is vulnerable to solvents.
PVC bottles are an excellent choice for salad oil, mineral oil, and vinegar. It is also commonly used for shampoos and cosmetic products. PVC exhibits poor resistance to high temperatures and will distort at 160¡ã F, making it incompatible with hot filled products
Plastic PET Bottles - PET/PETE/ Polyethylene Terephthalate
Plastic Bottles made from Polyethylene Terephthalate are commonly used for carbonated beverage bottles. PET provides very good alcohol and essential oil barrier properties, generally good chemical resistance (although acetones and ketones will attack PET) and a high degree of impact resistance and tensile strength. The orienting process serves to improve gas and moisture barrier properties and impact strength.This material does not provide resistance to high temperature applications -- max. temp. 160¡ã F.
LDPE is similar to HDPE in composition. It is less rigid and generally less chemically resistant than HDPE, but is more translucent. LDPE is used primarily for squeeze applications. LDPE is significantly more expensive than HDPE
Plastic Bottles - High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
HDPE is the most widely used resin for plastic bottles. This material is economical, impact resistant, and provides a good moisture barrier. HDPE is compatible with a wide range of products including acids and caustics but is not compatible with solvents. It is supplied in FDA approved food grade.
Plastic Bottles made from HDPE are naturally translucent and flexible. The addition of color will make HDPE bottles opaque although not glossy. HDPE plastic bottles lend themselves readily to silk screen decoration.
While HDPE bottles provide good protection at below freezing temperatures, they cannot be used with products filled at over 160¡ã F or products requiring a hermetic (vacuum) seal. HDPE is NOT suitable for use with essential oils.
Among the earliest glass jars used for home canning were wax sealers, named in reference to the sealing wax that was poured into a channel around the lip to secure a tin lid. This process, which was complicated and error-prone, became popular in the late 1830s or early 1840s and was commonly used for sealing fruit jars from the early 1850s until about 1890. The wax sealing process was largely the only one available until other sealing methods were developed, and widely used into the early 1900s.
By far the most popular and longest used form of closure for the glass canning jar was a screw-on zinc cap, the precursor to today's screw-on lids. It usually had a milk-glass liner, but some of the earliest lids may have had transparent glass liners. In 1858, a Philadelphia tinsmith named John Landis Mason (1832¨C1902) invented and patented a screw finish glass jar or bottle that became known as the Mason jar (U.S. Patent No. 22,186.) From 1857, when it was first patented, to the present, Mason jars had hundreds of variations in shape and cap design. After it was discovered that Mason's patent had expired, many other manufacturers produced glass jars for home canning using the Mason-style jar. "Patent Nov 30th 1858, signifying the date of Mason's patent, was embossed on thousands of jars, which were made in many shapes, sizes, and colors well into the 1900s. Since they were made in such quantity and used for such long periods, many of them have survived to the present day.
Between 1860 and 1900, many other patents were issued for Mason jar improvements and closures. The more esoteric closures were quickly abandoned, and thus can fetch high prices in today's antique market. Mason applied for and received a United States trademark, which was registered on May 23, 1871, as U.S. Trademark no. 276. Letters of patent issued to Mason on May 10, 1870, for improvements to his fruit-canning jar was determined to be invalid as a result of a patent infringement case brought before the Southern District of New York on June 11, 1874. The court acknowledged that Mason had invented the jar in 1859, but he did not apply for a patent for an improved version of the fruit jar until 1868. In the meantime, several others had patented designs and Mason had known these jars were being produced and sold. The court ruled that Mason's delay in protecting his patent indicated he had abandoned his invention in the intervening years between 1859 and 1868 and had forfeited his patent. The court's decision allowed other manufacturers to patent, produce, and sell glass jars for canning.
One of the more popular styles of closures for the Mason jar was the wire bail. The closure consists of a metal wire arrangement with a lever that applies leverage to a glass lid when pivoted downward against the side of the jar, clamping it down over a separate rubber O ring. The bail-style jars are still widely used in Western Europe, particularly France and Italy, where the two largest manufacturers (France's Le Parfait and Italy's Bormioli Rocco) produce the Le Parfait and Fido brands, respectively. While bail-type jars are widely available in the United States, they are generally marketed there exclusively for dry storage and only rarely used for home canning.
On January 5, 1875, Charles de Quillfeldt of New York City invented a wire-bail closure known as the Lightning closure. Within a short time he sold the patent rights to several individuals, including Henry Putnam and Karl Hutter. The stopper or lid was typically made from metal, porcelain, or ceramic, while a rubber gasket was used to seal the container. Putnam modified de Quillfeldt's design so that the lid was secured by centering the wire bail between two raised dots or in a groove along the lid's center. Putnam's closure was patented 1882 (U.S. Patent #256,857).
De Quillfeldt used the term "Lightning" to refer to the sealing method, but the closure's popular use on fruit jars led to the name, Lightning fruit jar. The sealing surface on the jar was a "shelf" that supported the lower edge of the lid. A rubber gasket between the shelf and the bottom surface of the lid formed a secure seal when the wire closure was tightened. Although Lightning jars were popular for home canning use from the early 1880s to the early 1900s, they were not as common as screw-thread Mason jars. The first U.S.-made brand of jars to use this type of closure was embossed with "Lightning" on the side.
A new type of Mason jar known as a "bead" jar was introduced around 1910 to 1915. These continuous screw-thread jars were designed with a bead between the screw threads and the shoulder as a sealing surface. The Ball Perfect Mason jar, one of the most common jars of this style, was introduced around 1913 and produced until the mid-twentieth century. It had several variations, including a square-shaped jar. During the twentieth century, bead jars were sealed with two-piece metal lids. The jar lid had a rubber or rubber-like sealing surface and was held in place by a separate metal band. This type of jar and closure, which first became popular in the late 1910s and 1920s, is still in use.
The decline in Mason jar manufacturing in North America is due to several factors: the lack of U.S.-based manufacturers of bail-closure jars since the early 1960s, a sharp decline in popularity of home canning in the 1950s and 1960s, consolidation of the U.S. canning jar industry, and the resulting higher cost of imported European-made jars. The Ball Corporation, who once dominated the market as the largest domestic manufacturer of home-canning jars, no longer produces Mason jars; it exited the home-canning business in 1993.
Older styles of home canning jars are "Not Recommended" by the U.S.-based National Center for Home Food Preservation, the United States Depertment of Agriculture, and University Extension Services. These include: (A) those using a zinc cap and a rubber jar ring, and (B) those using a glass lid, wire bail, and rubber sealing ring. These provide "no definitive way to determine if a vacuum seal is formed.
Among the most common U.S. brands of Mason jars are Ball, Kerr, and Golden Harvest. Jarden Corporation, based in Boca Raton, Florida, retains the license to use the Ball and Kerr registered trademarks on home-canning products as a part of its branded consumables business. At one time Jarden also may have had a license to use the Golden Harvest brand; however, Jarden¡¯s website did not list Golden Harvest as one of its brands as of March 2016. In Canada, Bernardin, which is another division of Jarden, is the most common brand; Golden Harvest is also available. Jarden offers its Canadian jars in metric volumes of 125ml, 250ml, 500ml and 1 litre.
Mason jars are made for canning food. You don't want that food to spoil. You seal the jar by sterilizing the jar, and by putting hot food in it and putting the seal on, then screw the lid on. As the contents cool, the air inside will contract causing the lid to seal tight. Your jar of food will be good for months or maybe even years. It's what people did before there were grocery stores to store food for their families.
A Mason jar, named after John Landis Mason who first invented and patented it in 1858, is a molded glass jar used in home canning to preserve food. The jar's mouth has a screw thread on its outer perimeter to accept a metal ring (or "band"). The band, when screwed down, presses a separate stamped steel disc-shaped lid against the jar's rim. An integral rubber ring on the underside of the lid creates a hermetic seal. The bands and lids usually come with new jars, but they are also sold separately. While the bands are reusable, the lids are intended for single use when canning. Largely supplanted by other products and methods for commercial canning, such as tin cans and plastic containers, glass jars and metal lids are still commonly used in home canning. Mason jars are also called Ball jars, in reference to the Ball Corporation, an early and prolific manufacturer of glass canning jars; fruit jars for a common content; and glass canning jars a generic term reflecting their material. Lightning fruit jars, another type of Mason jar, was not as common as the screw-thread version, but they were popular for home canning in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
PET Can Be Recycled Multiple Times and Used in a Variety of Products
Recycled PET is used for many end products including fiber, fiberfill, carpet, strapping, food and non-food bottles, and thermoformed packaging such as cups and take-out containers. PET reclaimers wash, grind and further process PET containers for re-use in new products. PET thermoform manufactures are using increasing amounts of recycled PET in their packaging, up to 100%. NAPCOR is actively working to overcome obstacles to the recovery and reclamation of PET thermoforms.
PET Recycling Not Only Saves Energy and Reduces Emissions, it Creates Domestic Jobs
For every pound of recycled PET flake used, energy use is reduced by 84%; greenhouse gas emission by 71%. The recycling of all materials creates 459,131 jobs and 10.3 billion in US domestic tax revenues, according to the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries 2011 Report.
PET is polyethylene terephthalate. It's a plastic resin and the most common type of polyester. Two monomers¡ªmodified ethylene glycol and purified terephthalic acid¡ªare combined to form the polymer called polyethylene terephthalate. PET was discovered and patented in England in 1941.
PET is the plastic labeled with the #1 code. Many beverages, food items and other consumer products are delivered in bottles or packages made from PET. The #1 code is usually found on or near the bottom of the container.
PET makes good packages for food and non-food items. Manufacturers like it because it's safe, strong, transparent and versatile. Customers choose it for its safety, light weight, resealability, shatter-resistance and recyclability. Up to 100% of a PET package can be made from recycled PET, and the material can be recycled again and again.
PET can be recycled into many new products. It's used to make new bottles, but recycled PET can also be made into fiber for carpets; fabric for t-shirts or fleece jackets; fiberfill for sleeping bags, winter coats, and dog beds; industrial strapping; sheet and thermoformed (clam shell) packaging; and automotive parts such as headliners, bumpers, and door panels.
Dentification code number For PET Bottes and PET Jars
Bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, sometimes PETE) can be "recycled" to reuse the material out of which they are made and to reduce the amount of waste going into landfills. PET is semiporous and absorbs molecules of the food or beverage contained, and the residue is difficult to remove: Heating the plastic enough for sterilization would destroy it. Therefore, most recycled bottles are used to make lower grade products, such as carpets. To make a food grade plastic, the bottles need to be hydrolysed down to monomers, which are purified and then re-polymerised to make new PET. In many countries, PET plastics are coded with the resin identification code number "1" inside the universal recycling symbol, usually located on the bottom of the container.